The Benefits of Dental Implants

Many individuals have lost teeth for numerous reasons. This can create low self-esteem and a lack of confidence for the individual. One solution that is becoming increasing popular is called a dental implant. This implant fuses with the jawbone and securely holds the replacement tooth. This is very similar to the natural tooth because of the appearance and stability. The majority of these implants are made from titanium because once it has fused into the bone, the body will not see it as a foreign object. Due to technological advances, the success rate for this procedure is almost 98 percent. A dental implant can replace one or every tooth while improving aesthetics and functionality for the individual.

There are three general options to replace missing teeth, a fixed dental bridge, dentures and dental implants. Dentures are the least expensive option, but many people do not like the idea of putting them in and taking them out every day. Dentures can trap pieces of food beneath them, slip and change the flavor of food. Dental bridgework was preferred prior to the advances in dental implants. These options are often dependent on where the missing teeth are located and the health of the individual. A dental implant services Downers Grove IL process will start by having a dental surgeon examine the patient. This establishes if dental implants are a good option.

Dental implants offer numerous advantages. They effectively replace any missing teeth without causing any damage to the existing teeth. They are extremely stable and look just like the other teeth. A licensed dentist or dental specialist can perform the surgery. Once completed, the individual is left with a beautiful smile and more self-confidence. If an individual has lost all their teeth, there is a technique using four implants. The implants are placed in an area where the bone is still strong and enable a denture prothesis to be screwed in. Unlike standard dentures, this is not removable and cannot slip. The prothesis also has the appearance and feel of the original teeth.

A local anesthetic is used during implant surgery to ensure the patient does not feel any pain. Prior to the surgery, the patient’s mouth is carefully examined using x-rays, CT scans and panoramic films. The jawbone is examined to make certain dental implants are a good option for the individual. Sometimes there are teeth that will require extraction because they are damaged. A special drill is used to place the implant. The healing process generally takes two to six months. Once the healing process is completed, the dental implant is connected using a screw. The dentist will make certain the implant has adjusted properly in the bone. This is then covered with a custom-made implant crown that is either screwed into or cemented on the abutment. The final result is any missing teeth are replaced with natural looking teeth. The individual can eat and drink the same way they did prior to losing any teeth.

Activated Sludge and WasteWater Treatment

Activated Sludge (AS) treatment has been used for many years to treat sewage and industrial wastewater. It is principally a biological treatment system, operating both aerobically and anaerobically in order to reduce ammonia content (by converting it to nitrate and, ultimately, nitrogen). The process also reduces the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) through the oxidation of carbonaceous content, removes suspended solids and may remove phosphorous where necessary.

Modern urban wastewater treatment plant.

Screening

Many foreign objects become entrained in wastewater flow, either deliberately introduced or accidentally (such as gravel washed into sewers from the roads). Such objects must be filtered out of the wastewater flow prior to entering the treatment process itself.

Settling tanks may also be used to remove further solids from the wastewater.

Aeration for Nitrification

The first stage of the biological process occurs under aerobic conditions. The wastewater enters a bioreactor, where it is mixed with AS (extracted later in the process and returned to the aeration tank when the process is under way. For start-up of the plant, seeding bacteria are used to initiate the nitrification process).

This stage forms mixed liquor (ML). The bacteria from the AS uses the highly oxygenated environment within the reactor to convert the ammonia content of the influent to nitrite and then to nitrate. The effectiveness and efficiency of the process is affected by various parameters:

  • The influent biological loading compared with the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). This is known as the food:microorganism (F:M) ratio
  • Residence time in the tank
  • Dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the ML.
  • Temperature.

The use of blowers to provide the necessary oxygen to the wastewater treatment process has the largest impact on efficiency. By ensuring only the necessary volume of air is provided, the operational costs can be minimised and efficiency of the plant is optimised.

Since the DO content of the ML is not stable, it does not provide the best parameter for controlling the blowers. Control would not react instantaneously to variations in load, which can lead to costly over-aeration, failure to comply with discharge limits or under-aeration, resulting in hydrogen sulphide production. A more accurate method is to monitor the DO, MLSS and influent loading to determine the volume of air required and control the blowers based on the real-time requirements within the plant.

Anaerobic Processing for Denitrification.

Following the aerobic process, the wastewater is led to an anoxic zone. Here oxygen is limited, forcing the biomass to scavenge oxygen from the nitrate, thereby converting it to nitrogen and further reducing the organic load.

It is important to monitor the oxygen level in the anoxic tank and ensure that it is minimised to encourage this reaction to take place.

Nutrient Removal

Following the biological treatment of the wastewater, it is often necessary to remove phosphorous before discharging to waterways.

Phosphorous causes eutrophication of waterways, resulting in the growth of algae. The algae deplete the oxygen in the water, resulting in an uninhabitable environment for fish and other wildlife.

The addition of calcium-, aluminium- or iron-based coagulant results in the precipitation of the phosphorous. It is important to accurately monitor the level of phosphorous in the wastewater so that only the necessary quantity of coagulant is added, optimising efficiency and preventing carryover of chemical into the discharge.

The wastewater treatment process is necessary for the protection of our environment. Accurate monitoring of the process conditions and influent parameters ensures optimum operational efficiency and compliance with discharge limitations.…